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Technical articles

A basic air freshener recipe. Other gums (such as CMC) are often aded to reduce syneresis

Recipe Procedure

Add all the ingredients to the water and heat with stirring to 80C. The mix is held at 80C for 30 minutes and then add the perfume, stir well to form a good emulsion and fill the containers.

Products: konjac, carrageenan, agar

Products are sold under the tradenames: CongelK

Andi Johnson Group

Biosynth Carbosynth offer an impressive collection of specialty chemicals and offer custom chemical production. They manufacture and source chemical and biochemical products and in the carbohdyrate field offer monosaccharides, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides. They also specialise in nucleosides, antimicrobials, APIs, enzyme substrates and natural products.

A basic cake glaze recipe using fruit juice.  This sweet fruit glaze is suitable for cakes, pastries and setting fruit into place on other confectionery.  It is important to pour while hot and not to move the product while the glaze is setting.  It is important to use a r

Products: alginate, carrageenan, guar, locust bean gum, pectin, xanthan
Their products are sold under the tradenames: satialgine, cecalgum, algogel, satiagel, satiagum, aubygel, unipectine, satiaxans, verxan

Prepared at the 68th JECFA (2007) and published in FAO JECFA Monographs 4 (2007), superseding specifications prepared at the 57th JECFA (2001), published in the Combined Compendium of Food Additive Specifications, FAO JECFA Monographs 1 (2005). A group ADI “not specified” for carrageenan and processed Eucheuma seaweed was established at the 57th JECFA (2001).

Stained cells from Eucheuma cottonii in semi refined carrageenan (2004)

Iodine stain carrageenan

Carrageenan milk protein interaction.  Source CyberColloids (2004)

Carrageenan milk protein interaction

Carrageenan production flow chart. Source CyberColloids (2004)

Carrageenan production flow chart

A basic chocolate flavour flan type dessert. A french dairy flan is a custard like product, different to English flan which is like a sponge

Recipe Procedure

Mix all ingredients. Pasteurise and homogenise. Add chocolate flavour and colour as required. A kappa type carrageenan or furcellaran is the best for this recipe.

A standard half fat chocolate milk. Complete stabilisation of the cocoa particles is affected by milk, cocoa and carrageenan types.  Hydrocolloid manufacturers produce carrageenans specifically for chocolate milk (generally semirefined kappa carrageenan with specific viscosities).

Products: carrageenan, cellulosics, gellan, pectin, xanthan, systems 

CP Kelco

Cream  cheese is a soft, white cheese which is mild in flavour. It is not normally matured which gives it a fresh, light taste. Its fat content is typically 30% although light versions are available which may be as low as 5% fat.

A cream style salad dressing. While xanthan is very pH stable, guar is not as stable at low pH, therefore it is important to fully hydrate the guar prior to acid addition. This helps retain some functionality at lower pH. Tween 60 is a very effective emulsifier but it is not acceptable in all countries.

Chefs make custard by combining milk (or cream), sugar, vanilla and egg yolk. Industrially it is made without the egg yolk (due to cost) and the yellow colour is obtained by the use of colours.  The thickener can be reduced to make it a pouring sauce (like crème anglaise) or increased to make a pastry filling like crème pâtissière.

A basic dessert jelly with carrageenan and locust bean gum.

Recipe Procedure

Mix gums with sugar and disperse into hot water. Add remaining ingredients. Stir until fully dissolved, pack off and pasteurise in the packets. Store at room temperature.

Products: alginate, carrageenan, guar, locust bean gum, pectin, cellulosics, xanthan, systems 
Their products are sold under the tradenames: Grinsted, meyprodor

In 2004 Danisco purchased Rhodia's food ingredient business

COMMISSION REGULATION (EU) No 231/2012 of 9 March 2012


Products of commerce are sold under different names such as: Irish moss gelose; Eucheuman (from Eucheuma spp.); Iridophycan (from Iridaea spp.); Hypnean (from Hypnea spp.); Furcellaran or Danish agar (from Furcellaria fastigiata); Carrageenan (from Chondrus and Gigartina spp.)

COMMISSION REGULATION (EU) No 231/2012 of 9 March 2012


PES (acronym for processed eucheuma seaweed). The PES obtained from Euchema cottonii is generally called kappa PES and the PES from Euchema spinosum iota PES.

The EU Scientific Committee on Food has published an opinion document on carrageenan stating that it believes a new weight limit should be imposed on carrageenan and that carrageenan should not be use in some infant formula's

The committee conclusions are:

Products: tara
Exandal specialise in the worldwide trade of ingredients and food blends

Products: alginate, carrageenan, konjac, microcrystalline cellulose/cellulose gel, pectin, hyaluronic acid, systems 
Their products are sold under the tradenames: Seagel, Gelcarin, Lactarin, Viscarin for carrageenan, Nutricol for konjac and Protanal for alginates.

In general, frozen yogurt contains less fat and more sugar and protein than ice-cream. Also an emulsifier is not always needed.

Due to lack of legislation for the production of frozen yogurt, there are three different ways of making it:

  1. Freezing and whipping yogurt

Products: carrageenan 
Their products are sold under the tradenames: Hygel

Products: carrageenan

As of November 4, 2008, Extractos Naturales Gelymar S.A. operates as a subsidiary of Algina Inversion SA


Products: agar, carrageenan, konjac, meat product solution, gummy candy powder, jelly powder, thickening agent


Products: agar, carrageenan 
Their products are sold under the tradenames: Secogel, Secolacta, Ibergel

Hydrocolloids can be obtained from a wide variety of sources. The two most abundant polysaccharides are cellulose and starch. Cellulose is the key structural component of trees and is used on a huge scale globally in the pulp and paper industry.


The practical utility of carrageenan stems from two key properties. Its ability to form strong gels with certain salts or other gums and its ability to interact with certain dairy proteins. Carrageenan is mainly used in the food industry with some applications in the toiletries industry. Industrial applications of carrageenan are rare.

Milk protein Interactions

Probably the best-known synergistic carrageenan interaction is that involving milk proteins. Some of the first uses of carrageenan were in milk gels and flans, and in the stabilisation of evaporated milk and ice cream mixes.


Carrageenan production goes back many decades and only recently, with the introduction of new weed sources, as there been any major developments in the processes involved. There are four basic processes used for the production of carrageenan. For the sake of convenience we will refer to these as:

Anderson NS, Campbell JW, Harding MM, X-ray diffraction studies of polysaccharide sulphates: double helix models for kappa and iota carrageenans, J Mol Biol, 45(1), pp85-88 (1969)

The 'original' carrageenan was Chondrus Crispus,a red seaweed found in the north Atlantic. Another name for this seaweed is 'Irish moss'; a name still used in the brewing industry. Chondrus crispusactually contains a mix of carrageenan types, the predominant ones being kappa and lambda.

Primary structure

The basic structure of carrageenan is a linear polysaccharide made up of a repeating dissacharide sequence of α-D-galactopyranose linked 1,3 called the A residue and β-D-galactopyranose residues linked through positions 1,4 (B residues).

Synergistic Interactions

Mixtures of hydrocolloids are commonly used to impart novel and improved rheological characteristics to food products and an added incentive is a reduction in costs. The nature of the synergy can be due to association of the different hydrocolloid molecules or to non-association. If the two hydrocolloids associate then precipitation or gelation can occur.

Products: carrageenan,systems 
Their products are sold under the tradenames: Deltagel and Betagel for carrageenan, Sherex for blends

Frankfurters can be made from pork, chicken, turkey, pork and beef or combinations of different meats. Meat analogue frankfurters are also available commercially.

Low fat yogurt requires the use of stabilisers to enhance the texture and creaminess of the product. The most common stabilisers used are: gelatine (100 - 250 bloom, 0.2 - 0.5%), pectin (0.05 – 0.20%), modified starch (0.5 – 2.0%), alginate (0.25 – 0.50%), agar (0.8 - 1.1%), carrageenan (0.05 – 0.20%) (Hui, 2007).

Products: cassia tora, guar, tamarind
Trades: guar, sesbania, cassia, tamarind, CMC, xanthan, carrageenan and pectin.


Seaweed derived extracts makes up almost 40% of the worlds hydrocolloid market in foods. Carrageenan is the most important seaweed extract with the largest markets being in pet food, dairy and meats. Agar is largely a traditional foodstuff produced in Asia for the local market.

Products: agar, carrageenan, depolymerised alginate, partially hydrolysed guar gum

Founded as Myeong Shin Chemical Ind Co Ltd in 1974 which changed its name to MSC Co Ltd in 1997

A basic petfood formulation for the meat in gel type of canned petfood.

Recipe Procedure

Disperse the carrageenan, salts and LBG in the water. Add the meat, mix, can and retort.

A block type processed cheese suitable for pizza toppings and other shredded or sliced applications.

Gigartina skottsbergii from Hookers point, Falkland Island (2005)

Gigartina skottsbergii

Mixed seaweeds growing in the intertidal region on the coast of Ireland (2004)

Mixed seaweed

Micrographs from CSLM of 10% wt WPI gels in 24 mM CaCl2 (top) alone and (bottom) in the presence of 1% wt κ-carrageenan. White areas correspond to fluorescently-labelled protein. (top) shows a comparatively homogeneous network of agglomerated protein.

Segregative interactions

Products: carrageenan 
Their products are sold under the tradenames: Bengel, Benvisco, Puregel


A standard grade ice cream formulation with good melt down resistance and heat shock stability.  The LBG and fat are the two main ingredients which increase the melting and heat shock resistance of the ice-cream.

A standard tortenguss (German cake glaze, similar to nappage) recipe.  A fruit glace will prevent fruit drying out and can enhance the appearance of cakes on display.

Recipe Procedure

Mix all ingredients together, stir with heating until you reach a low simmer. Simmer for one minute. Add colour and flavour as required.

A 30% american style extended turkey breast.  The phosphate needs to be dissolved in water first and without any other ingredients. If it is mixed with the salt, it will not go into solution which means a non-uniform brine, and it may also block the injector.  Following cooking the carrageenan gels which enhances water binding and improves yields.

Products: agar, carrageenan, konjac, alginate

Yantai Sheli Hydrocolloids Co., Ltd., is a wholly-owned subsidiary of Kam Yuen International Company

A yogurt style salad dressing.  While xanthan is very pH stable, guar is not as stable at low pH, therefore it is important to fully hydrate the guar prior to acid addition. This helps retain some functionality at lower pH. Tween 60 is a very effective emulsifier but it is not acceptable in all countries.