E 440(i) Pectin – EU specification

COMMISSION REGULATION (EU) No 231/2012 of 9 March 2012



Pectin consists mainly of the partial methyl esters of polygalacturonic acid and their ammonium, sodium, potassium and calcium salts. It is obtained by extraction in an aqueous medium of strains of appropriate edible plant material, usually citrus fruits or apples. No organic precipitant shall be used other than methanol, ethanol and propan-2-ol

Einecs: 232-553-0

Chemical name:

Chemical formula:

Molecular weight:

Assay: Content not less than 65 % of galacturonic acid on the ash-free and anhydrous basis after washing with acid and alcohol


White, light yellow, light grey or light brown powder


Solubility: Soluble in water forming a colloidal, opalescent solution. Insoluble in ethanol


Loss on drying: Not more than 12 % (105 °C, 2 hours)

Acid insoluble ash: Not more than 1 % (insoluble in approximately 3N hydrochloric acid)

Sulphur dioxide: Not more than 50 mg/kg on the anhydrous basis

Nitrogen content: Not more than 1,0 % after washing with acid and ethanol

Total insolubles: Not more than 3 %

Solvent residues: Not more than 1 % of free methanol, ethanol and propan-2-ol, singly or in combination, on the volatile matter-free basis

Arsenic: Not more than 3 mg/kg

Lead: Not more than 5 mg/kg

Mercury: Not more than 1 mg/kg

Cadmium: Not more than 1 mg/kg