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Products: alginate, carrageenan, guar, locust bean gum, pectin, xanthan
Their products are sold under the tradenames: satialgine, cecalgum, algogel, satiagel, satiagum, aubygel, unipectine, satiaxans, verxan

Products: carrageenan, cellulosics, gellan, pectin, xanthan, systems 

CP Kelco

Products: alginate, carrageenan, guar, locust bean gum, pectin, cellulosics, xanthan, systems 
Their products are sold under the tradenames: Grinsted, meyprodor

In 2004 Danisco purchased Rhodia's food ingredient business

http://www.danisco.com/food-beverages/

COMMISSION REGULATION (EU) No 231/2012 of 9 March 2012

Synonyms

COMMISSION REGULATION (EU) No 231/2012 of 9 March 2012

Synonyms

Products: alginate, carrageenan, konjac, microcrystalline cellulose/cellulose gel, pectin, hyaluronic acid, systems 
Their products are sold under the tradenames: Seagel, Gelcarin, Lactarin, Viscarin for carrageenan, Nutricol for konjac and Protanal for alginates.

http://www.fmcbiopolymer.com/Food

A medium solids level fruit preparation for use in dairy products such as a yoghurt.  Low methoxy amidated pectin is used here because of the lower sugar levels.

Hydrocolloids can be obtained from a wide variety of sources. The two most abundant polysaccharides are cellulose and starch. Cellulose is the key structural component of trees and is used on a huge scale globally in the pulp and paper industry.

Introduction

Pectin has been recognised for at least 200 years and was originally identified in 1790 in apples by the French chemist Nicholas Vauquelin (who also discovered the elements chromium and beryllium). It was not until 1824 that further work on pectin was undertaken by Braconnot who named the acid, gelling substance pectic acid after the Greek word for gelling or congealing.

Properties

Pectin gelation characteristics can be divided into two main types: high methoxy gelation and low methoxy gelation.

Sources of Pectin

The traditional, commercial sources of pectin have been citrus peel and apple pomace. Often this is a waste material from another industry such as apple pomace from a cider producer.

Structure

 Pectin is a complex polysaccharide consisting mainly of esterified D-galacturonic acid resides in an alpha-(1-4) chain. The acid groups along the chain are largely esterifed with methoxy groups in the natural product. There can also be acetyl groups present on the free hydroxy groups.

Low fat yogurt requires the use of stabilisers to enhance the texture and creaminess of the product. The most common stabilisers used are: gelatine (100 - 250 bloom, 0.2 - 0.5%), pectin (0.05 – 0.20%), modified starch (0.5 – 2.0%), alginate (0.25 – 0.50%), agar (0.8 - 1.1%), carrageenan (0.05 – 0.20%) (Hui, 2007).

A low sugar jam can reduce the sugar level in the jam from 65% to 55% with the addition of additional pectin and higher water levels.

Products: cassia tora, guar, tamarind
Trades: guar, sesbania, cassia, tamarind, CMC, xanthan, carrageenan and pectin.

http://www.lucidcolloids.com

 

The pectin is essential in this formulation as otherwise the low pH of the orange juice will cause the rehydrated milk drink to curdle.  In low pH systems HM pectin protects the casein which helps to prevent against flocculation and sedimentation.

Products: Pectin

Obipektin is now owned by Naturex

In December, 2011 Naturex announced that it had reached agreement to aquire the Polish company, Pektowin which specialises in apple and citrus pectins along with fruit and vegetable juice concentrates

http://www.naturex.com/

Prepared at the 71st JECFA (2009) and published in FAO JECFA Monographs 7 (2009), superseding specifications prepared at the 68th JECFA (2007) and published in FAO JECFA Monographs 4 (2007). A group ADI “not specified” was established for pectins and amidated pectins, singly or in combination at the 25th JECFA in 1981.

Author: Dr Paul Macartain

Pectins also carry nonsugar subsituents, essentially methanol, acetic acid, phenolic acids and occasionally amide groups. The esterification of galacturonic acid residues with methanol or acetic acid is a very important structural characteristic of pectic substances. The degree of methylation (DM) is defined as the percentage of carbonyl groups esterified with methanol.

Low methoxy pectin (LM)

LM pectins can gel in the presence of divalent cations, usually calcium. In these systems gelation is due to the formation of intermolecular junction zones between homogalacturonic smooth regions of different chains. The structure of such a junction zone is generally ascribed to the so called 'egg box' binding process.

Low methoxy pectin gels

Calcium induced gelation is predominant in low methoxy pectin gels. Gelation is due to the formation of intermolecular junction zones between the 'smooth' HG regions of separate polymers. The nature of the interaction, although known to be electrostatic to some extent, is still debated.

Source of dietary fibre

Pectin is sourced from plant cell walls and is analysed as a soluble and insoluble fraction as galacturonic acid after hydrolysis. The fruits and vegetables which are especially rich in pectins have dietary fibre contents in the range of 1-2%. In order to increase societal intake in fibre it is therefore preferable to add products concentrated in fibres.

Interactions between alginates and pectins

Mixtures of pectins with other polysaccharides such as alginate has found that good gels are formed from high methoxy pectin and guluronic rich alginates. A pH above 4 also hinders the gel formation.

  • Voragen, A., et al., In Food Polysaccharides and their applications, 1995, Marcel Dekker Inc., pg 287-340.
  • Thibault, J.-F., Ralet, M.-C., In Advanced Dietary Fibre Technology, 2001, Blackwell Science, pg 369-378.
  • Ridley, B., O'Neill, M.A., Mohnen, D., 'Pectins: structure, biosynthesis and oligogalacturonide-related signalling', Phytochemistry, 2001, 57, 929-967.
  • Gia

Pectin is found in most plants, but is most concentrated in citrus fruits (oranges, lemons, grapefruits) and apples. Pectin obtained from citrus peels is referred to as citrus pectin.

Pectin basics

Strengths

Increasing knowledge of the interaction of pectins with other hydrocolloids is opening opportunity for its use as a more tailored polymer than previous uses.

Backbone structure

Pectins are a family of complex polysaccharides that contain 1,4-linked α-D-galactosyluronic residues. Three pectic polysaccharides, homogalacturonan, rhamnogalacturonan-I and substituted galacturonans, have been isolated from primary plant cell walls.

Montage of pectin sources (2004)

Pectin sources

Products: Pectin

In December, 2011 Naturex announced that it had reached agreement to aquire the Polish company, Pektowin which specialises in apple and citrus pectins along with fruit and vegetable juice concentrates

http://www.pektowin.com.pl