E 416 Karaya gum – EU specification

COMMISSION REGULATION (EU) No 231/2012 of 9 March 2012


Katilo; Kadaya; Gum sterculia; Sterculia; Karaya, gum karaya; Kullo; Kuterra


Karaya gum is a dried exudation from the stems and branches of strains of: Sterculia urens Roxburgh and other species of Sterculia

(family Sterculiaceae) or from Cochlospermum gossypium A.P. De Candolle or other species of Cochlospermum (family Bixaceae). It consists mainly of high molecular weight acetylated polysaccharides, which on hydrolysis yield galactose, rhamnose, and galacturonic acid, together with minor amounts of glucuronic acid

Einecs: 232-539-4

Chemical name:

Chemical formula:

Molecular weight:



Karaya gum occurs in tears of variable size and in broken irregular pieces having a characteristic semi-crystalline appearance. It is pale yellow to pinkish brown in colour, translucent and horny. Powdered karaya gum is a pale grey to pinkish brown. The gum has a distinctive odour of acetic acid


Solubility: Insoluble in ethanol

Swelling in ethanol: solution Karaya gum swells in 60 % ethanol distinguishing it from other gums


Loss on drying: Not more than 20 % (105 °C, 5 hours)

Total ash: Not more than 8 %

Acid insoluble ash: Not more than 1 %

Acid insoluble matter: Not more than 3 %

Volatile acid: Not less than 10 % (as acetic acid)

Starch: Not detectable

Arsenic: Not more than 3 mg/kg

Lead: Not more than 2 mg/kg

Mercury: Not more than 1 mg/kg

Cadmium: Not more than 1 mg/kg

Microbiological criteria

Salmonella spp.: Absent in 10 g

Escherichia coli: Absent in 5 g